TORTURE IN THE WORLD | Human Rights | PACIFIST JOURNAL 

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Direitos Humanos / 11/08/2020


TORTURE IN THE WORLD

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TORTURE IN THE WORLD

Fonte POLITIZE

WHAT IS TORTURE?

Violence has always been present in people's lives as a means to achieve something desired. The history of the vast majority of countries was built through bloody battles, civil wars and war disputes. Despite violent actions, none of these means is more controversial than torture.

Torture is the act of applying pain and suffering to individuals through inhuman mechanisms. It has been characterized for a long time as an extremely cruel practice. Therefore, it is combated through various legal instruments, international and national, such as declarations and constitutions.

But this was not always the case: for a long time in history, torture was socially accepted and its "effectiveness" was considered indisputable, since the desired was easily achieved. However, this practice has been and is still widely discussed due to its reflexes. Shall we understand a little better?

THE USE OF TORTURE IN THE WORLD THROUGHOUT HISTORY

Torture has not always been repelled by society. At the time when the confession was considered the "queen of evidence", torture was often accepted as a tool to obtain it. The guilty individual sometimes did not enjoy a trial to ascertain the facts and the truth needed to be discovered in some way. Based on this idea, this same individual was questioned in different ways by those responsible for carrying out the punishments, until, in the midst of countless sufferings, he even confessed to crimes he had not committed.

In ancient Greece 500 BC, torture was seen as a means of punishment or evidence to incriminate and hold slaves, foreigners and prisoners of war, who were not considered subjects of rights at the time. This is because these individuals could not even participate in political issues, rights that belonged to the well-born, that is, children of the elite. For the well-born, torture was imposed when it was only a crime against the state.

In Rome, in the 8th century BC, the practice of torture occurred in the same way as in Greece. One of the most used methods at that time was crucifixion. Slaves or convicts were stripped and flogged, then their hands and feet were nailed to a wooden cross so that the public could watch them die slowly and painfully. The legitimacy of torture was foreseen in the first written legislation and there were numerous methods for carrying it out, even though there were already doubts as to the effectiveness of this means of seeking the truth.

When we think of torture in the world, we cannot disregard the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the Roman Catholic Church directed courts to try individuals who threatened the institution's doctrines. The performances of the Tribunal do Santo Ofício lasted for years and the period became known as the Inquisition, torture was practiced by both feudal lords and the Church and, often, cases resulted in death.

In addition to sophisticated and expensive devices, simple instruments were also used, such as scissors, pliers, metal claws, which destroyed and mutilated genitals; whips and carpentry instruments were adapted for this other use; heated iron bars were also used to punish heretical individuals, that is, people contrary to the Catholic religion, morals and customs of the time.

In general, the executions were carried out in public squares and it became a true event in which nobles and commoners entertained themselves with the plea of ​​torture and, consequently, the execution of the victims.

The absurdities committed in the name of the customs of the time caused revolts within the Church itself, leading to the Protestant Reformation, one of the Christian reforms in the face of questions about what was imposed by the Catholic Church and its attitudes, which fled the initial principles and proved to be a great contradiction. .

Furthermore, with the strengthening of the bourgeois class, the first enlightenment manifestations began to emerge in the 17th century, combined with thoughts of freedom, equality and fraternity, which also began to fight against torture and injustices committed by the State.

The first ban on torture occurred in 1740 in Prussia. Even though it was a monarchy with power concentrated in the hands of King Frederick II, who ruled through obedient and paid officials. He favored military training and for that reason Prussia became the great European power of the time.

Torture was removed criminal proceedings as a valid way of seeking evidence to penalize individuals to be applied only to the most serious crimes. However, a few years later, in 1756, influenced by the ideas of the illuminist Voltaire, Frederick II definitively abolished torture in his country and influenced the abolition and typification, that is, the recognition of the practice as a crime in several European countries.

THE FORMS OF TORTURE IN THE WORLD

the Latin, the word torture means torture, martyrdom, torment, which can be both physical and psychological.

Physical torture aims to bring out physical suffering to obtain confessions and information. Electric shocks, drowning, submission to high and low temperatures for long periods of time, deprivation of food, paddling, use of chemicals and physical aggression are some of the ways to injure and cause physically unbearable pain in an individual.

Psychological torture is considered to be any type of mental suffering caused by external factors. The causes can range the simplest, such as offenses, humiliations, curses, threats, blackmail, to the most intense, such as long periods of interrogation, sensory deprivation eliminating auditory signals and senses the human body and sleep, exploitation of phobias, among others.

There are cases in which psychological torture can be used on purpose and in order to achieve a certain objective as a confession, but it can also be used for the simple pleasure of destabilizing or offending the other. In both cases, the tortured individual may develop irreversible traumas and psychological disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress, anxiety attacks, phobias, panic syndrome and various psychological illnesses.

HOW WAS TORTURE IN THE WORLD BEEN PROHIBITED?

Abolition of European Penal Codes at the end of the century. XVIII and beginning of XIX, torture in the world became unjustifiable due to all the efforts for the respect for the dignity and human life proposed by human rights.

For years, there was a concern to recognize all individuals and their rights as inviolable, however, it was after the Second World War that these rights started to have greater evidence together with the activities of the United Nations - UN, which sought that moment maintain peace among peoples and develop programs to combat violence and any form of torture practiced worldwide.

International documents in defense of human dignity and prevention of torture created were:

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: the UN General Assembly, in 1948, when drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, highlighted the right of every human being to physical integrity, condemning corporal punishment or cruel and degrading punishment.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: in the seventh article it is prohibited to subject a person to torture, cruel punishment or treatment.

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment: it was approved by the UN General Assembly in 1984. It defines the crime of torture, provides for punishment for those who commit it and constitutes a Committee against Torture, whose purpose is analyze and monitor the protection against this crime in the various countries that are part of the Convention and have adopted it as law.

the Latin, the word torture means torture, martyrdom, torment, which can be both physical and psychological.

Physical torture aims to bring out physical suffering to obtain confessions and information. Electric shocks, drowning, submission to high and low temperatures for long periods of time, deprivation of food, paddling, use of chemicals and physical aggression are some of the ways to injure and cause physically unbearable pain in an individual.

Psychological torture is considered to be any type of mental suffering caused by external factors. The causes can range the simplest, such as offenses, humiliations, curses, threats, blackmail, to the most intense, such as long periods of interrogation, sensory deprivation eliminating auditory signals and senses the human body and sleep, exploitation of phobias, among others.

There are cases in which psychological torture can be used on purpose and in order to achieve a certain objective as a confession, but it can also be used for the simple pleasure of destabilizing or offending the other. In both cases, the tortured individual may develop irreversible traumas and psychological disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress, anxiety attacks, phobias, panic syndrome and various psychological illnesses.

HOW WAS TORTURE IN THE WORLD BEEN PROHIBITED?

Abolition of European Penal Codes at the end of the century. XVIII and beginning of XIX, torture in the world became unjustifiable due to all the efforts for the respect for the dignity and human life proposed by human rights.

For years, there was a concern to recognize all individuals and their rights as inviolable, however, it was after the Second World War that these rights started to have greater evidence together with the activities of the United Nations - UN, which sought that moment maintain peace among peoples and develop programs to combat violence and any form of torture practiced worldwide.

International documents in defense of human dignity and prevention of torture created were:

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: the UN General Assembly, in 1948, when drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, highlighted the right of every human being to physical integrity, condemning corporal punishment or cruel and degrading punishment.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: in the seventh article it is prohibited to subject a person to torture, cruel punishment or treatment.

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment: it was approved by the UN General Assembly in 1984. It defines the crime of torture, provides for punishment for those who commit it and constitutes a Committee against Torture, whose purpose is analyze and monitor the protection against this crime in the various countries that are part of the Convention and have adopted it as law.

There have been numerous scandals related to the practices used by American soldiers and agents in the prisons of Guantánamo (Cuba) and Abu Ghraib (Iraq), which shocked the world and organs in defense of human rights. However, even though considered inhumane places that disrespect the integrity - and often the very life - of prisoners, the use of torture in cases of combating terrorism was seen in an acceptable manner by approximately 36% of the US population, in the same period .

With the number of scandals involving the Abu Ghraib prison and pressure the international community, the United States declared its closure in 2006. Many Americans today see the prison located in Cuba as a human rights violation, but the 2001 attacks made the feeling of great insecurity and people believed that Guantánamo would prevent further attacks.

In 2016, human rights experts the UN and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) called on the U.S. government to immediately close the detention center in Guantánamo Bay and end impunity for the abuses carried out. With approximately 700 inmates at its peak today, it has fewer than 50 inmates. However, even with the decrease, the prison has not yet been closed.

In one way or another, the topic remains controversial and has sparked debate around the world.


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